OSTEOPOROSIS: HOW TO CHOOSE A BONE SUPPLEMENT
By Joshua Ng (Pharmacist, Caring Pharmacy) | Malaysia | Fri Feb 01, 2019 11:00am
Osteoporosis is a condition of reduced bone mass and density causing the bones to be fragile. This results in increased fracture incidence.1
1. CALCIUM & VITAMIN D
The recommended daily calcium intake for men and women above 50 years old is 1000mg/day.
The recommended daily intake for vitamin D is 800IU/day. Both components have clear clinical evidence in improving bone mineral density, as well as decrease in vertebral and hip fracture rates.1 Calcium is the main component of bone formation, whereas Vitamin D enables dietary absorption of calcium.2
2. TRACE ELEMENTS
Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Boron (Bo), Zinc (Zn) are found in human bones. These components are thought to play a role in bone health.2
The possible roles of trace elements in bone health are:
- Mg: helps regulate calcium transport (calcium movement)
- Cu: for lysine oxidation (formation of bone)
- Mn: for glycosyltransferase (required for an enzyme to assist in bone formation)
- Bo: reduces calcium secretion (reduce calcium loss)
- Zn: important for enzyme functions (aids certain enzymes in bone formation)
3. VITAMIN K
Studies suggest that a form of vitamin K2 known as MK-7 (Menaquinone-7) may be effective for bone health.2,3 Research has shown that vitamin K2 supplements are safe for most people. The exception is that people taking certain blood-thinning drugs, including warfarin, should not use vitamin K supplements.3
The functions of Vitamin K in bone health are:
- Acts as a co-factor by improving enzyme in bone formation
- Inhibits osteoclast (a cell that removes bone) and stimulates osteoblast (a cell that forms new bone)
- Prevent calcification (hardening) of blood vessels, soft tissues and cartilages.
- Clinical Guidance on Management of Osteoporosis. Ministry of Health Malaysia. (2012). Malaysian Osteoporosis Society.
- Osteoporosis and trace elements – An overview. J Aaseth, G Boivin, O Andersen. (2012). Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.
- Vitamin K and osteoporosis: Myth or reality. A Palermo, D Tuccinardi, S Manfrini, et al. (2017). Metabolism Clinical and Experimental.
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