AMD & Supplements Of The Eye
PART 1: What is AMD
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness. A cross-sectional study in Singapore was performed in 10,0033 people age 40 and above. The study noted that the prevalence of early AMD at 5.1% of the population. The study noted that AMD was more prevalent in the Chinese and the Indians as compared to the Malay population. 1
AMD is a disease that blurs the sharp, central vision you need for “straight-ahead” activities such as reading, sewing, and driving [Image 1]. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail [Image 2]. AMD causes no pain but can lead to poor quality of life. 2
[Image 1] Blurred vision with AMD 3 [Image 2] Healthy eye vs Eye with AMD 4
Researchers have found that the risk of AMD can be lowered by adopting the following healthy lifestyle choices: 2
Maintain normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels
Adopt a healthy diet rich in antioxidants
PART 2: How To Choose Supplements for the Eye
A landmark trial called the Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AREDS) study was published in 2001. The study recruited 4,757 participants and attempted to identify a supplement formulation that may be able to reduce the risk of progression of AMD. A follow-up study was published in 2013, called AREDS2 with 4,203 participants recruited. The purpose was to identify an improved formulation. The two studies showed a 19-25% reduction of risk in developing advanced AMD. To date, AREDS and AREDS2 is the most evidence-based study that guides us on how to choose an eye supplement. 5
Below are a few supplements to consider to slow the progression of AMD
Lutein & Zeaxanthin 5, 6
Vitamin C & E 5, 6
Zinc & Copper 5, 6
The AREDS and AREDS2 study concluded the recommended formulation for AMD should contain: 5
Other notable eye supplements
Beta Carotene 5, 6
Omega 3 (DHA) 5, 6
Marigold formulations 5, 7
Bilberry formulations 8
Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) 9
Prevalence, racial variations and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Singaporean Chinese, Indians and Malays. CMG Cheung, X Li, TY Wong, et al. (2014) American Academy of Ophthalmology
Facts about age-related macular degeneration. National Eye Institute. (web accessed May 2019) Web link: https://nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts
What is age-related macular degeneration? M Haddril & C Slonim. (Web accessed May 2019) Web link: https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amd.htm
Macular Degeneration. Centre for Sight. (Web accessed May 2019) Web link: https://www.centreforsight.com/eye-conditions/macular-degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration Preferred Practice Guideline. AAO Retina & Vitreous PPP Panel, Hoskins Center for Quality Eye Care. (Jan 2015) American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Diet and Nutrition. American Optometric Association. (Web accessed May 2019) Web link: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/caring-for-your-vision/diet-and-nutrition
Lutein content in Marigold Flower (Tagetes erecta L.) concentrates used for production of food supplements. M Sivel, S Kracmar, V Kuban et al. (2014) Czech Journal of Food Science.
Bilberry extract supplementation for preventing eye fatigue in video display terminal workers. Y Ozawa, M Kawashima, K Tsubota, et al. (2015) The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging.
A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose. D Stonemetz. (2008) Holistic Nursing Practice.