Type of Hepatitis: How to prevent it?

Hepatitis is an inflammation of liver that caused by infectious agents (eg. viruses and bacteria) or non infectious agents (eg. alcohol and medications). According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are an estimated 354 million people worldwide who have hepatitis B and C. The 3 most common causes of hepatitis in Malaysia are viral hepatitis A, B and C2. Table below showing different types of hepatitis, transmission route and prevention of hepatitis.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

Many people who suffer from hepatitis A, B, C, D and E present with mild symptoms or not showing any symptoms at all. Common symptoms of hepatitis 1 are 

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
  • Fever 
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite  
  • Jaundice which is yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes 
  • Dark urine

Prevention Tips

We should practise good personal hygiene to prevent hepatitis A and E as they present in contaminated food or drink. We should always wash our hands after going to the toilet, avoid eating raw seafood, raw vegetables and fruits. To prevent hepatitis B, C and D, we shall avoid contact with infected body fluid by avoiding sharing personal belongings such as toothbrushes and body shavers3. Apart from that, hepatitis B and C would spread through sex contact, therefore using barrier method such as condoms to reduce the risk of infection3.

For more information, please visit our pharmacist at your nearby Caring Pharmacy store.


  1. Hepatitis, World Health Organization, (Web accessed July 2022). Web link:  https://www.who.int/health-topics/hepatitis#tab=tab_1
  2. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future. Raihan R (2016).  Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol.
  3. Viral Hepatitis. Cleveland Clinic, (Web accessed July 2022). Web link: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4245-hepatitis-viral-hepatitis-a-b–c